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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Three-dimensional focusing through scattering media using conjugate adaptive optics with remote focusing (CAORF).

  • Author(s): Tao, Xiaodong
  • Lam, Tuwin
  • Zhu, Bingzhao
  • Li, Qinggele
  • Reinig, Marc R
  • Kubby, Joel
  • et al.

The small correction volume for conventional wavefront shaping methods limits their application in biological imaging through scattering media. We demonstrate large volume wavefront shaping through a scattering layer with a single correction by conjugate adaptive optics and remote focusing (CAORF). The remote focusing module can maintain the conjugation between the adaptive optical (AO) element and the scattering layer during three-dimensional scanning. This new configuration provides a wider correction volume by better utilization of the memory effect in a fast three-dimensional laser scanning microscope. Our results show that the proposed system can provide 10 times wider axial field of view compared with a conventional conjugate AO system when 16,384 segments are used on a spatial light modulator. We also demonstrate three-dimensional fluorescence imaging, multi-spot patterning through a scattering layer and two-photon imaging through mouse skull tissue.

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