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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Development of whole building energy models for detailed energy insights of a large office building with green certification rating in Singapore

  • Author(s): Duarte Roa, Carlos
  • Raftery, Paul
  • Schiavon, Stefano
  • et al.

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The data associated with this publication are in the supplemental files.
Creative Commons 'BY-NC-SA' version 4.0 license

Detailed insights on energy use are missing for the building stock in Singapore which may aid with energy consumption reductions through a targeted approach. Therefore, we created two whole building energy models for a large commercial office building in the tropics; representing a fully glazed and a concrete façade. We used Singapore’s current building codes, which includes compliance with local green rating system, and collaboration between two entities with first-hand experience with design, construction, and operation of buildings in the tropics to define the models. The models provide a first step towards a set of standardized inputs and assumptions for office buildings in the tropics. The results show an energy use intensity of 146 kWh m-2·a. The three highest energy consumers are air conditioning and mechanical ventilation (43%), lighting (29%), and plug loads (21%) while the two main sources of cooling loads are ventilation (29%) and conduction and radiation through windows (20%). Finally, we evaluated the effects of exterior shading on the fully glazed energy model to demonstrate the use of the models to building stakeholders.

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