Development of whole building energy models for detailed energy insights of a large office building with green certification rating in Singapore
- Author(s): Duarte Roa, Carlos
- Raftery, Paul
- Schiavon, Stefano
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1002/ente.201700564
Detailed insights on energy use are missing for the building stock in Singapore which may aid with energy consumption reductions through a targeted approach. Therefore, we created two whole building energy models for a large commercial office building in the tropics; representing a fully glazed and a concrete façade. We used Singapore’s current building codes, which includes compliance with local green rating system, and collaboration between two entities with first-hand experience with design, construction, and operation of buildings in the tropics to define the models. The models provide a first step towards a set of standardized inputs and assumptions for office buildings in the tropics. The results show an energy use intensity of 146 kWh m-2·a. The three highest energy consumers are air conditioning and mechanical ventilation (43%), lighting (29%), and plug loads (21%) while the two main sources of cooling loads are ventilation (29%) and conduction and radiation through windows (20%). Finally, we evaluated the effects of exterior shading on the fully glazed energy model to demonstrate the use of the models to building stakeholders.