Light-emitting metalenses and meta-axicons for focusing and beaming of spontaneous emission
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23433-0
Phased-array metasurfaces have been extensively used for wavefront shaping of coherent incident light. Due to the incoherent nature of spontaneous emission, the ability to similarly tailor photoluminescence remains largely unexplored. Recently, unidirectional photoluminescence from InGaN/GaN quantum-well metasurfaces incorporating one-dimensional phase profiles has been shown. However, the possibility of generating arbitrary two-dimensional waveforms-such as focused beams-is not yet realized. Here, we demonstrate two-dimensional metasurface axicons and lenses that emit collimated and focused beams, respectively. First, we develop off-axis meta-axicon/metalens equations designed to redirect surface-guided waves that dominate the natural emission pattern of quantum wells. Next, we show that photoluminescence properties are well predicted by passive transmission results using suitably engineered incident light sources. Finally, we compare collimating and focusing performances across a variety of different light-emitting metasurface axicons and lenses. These generated two-dimensional phased-array photoluminescence waveforms facilitate future development of light sources with arbitrary functionalities.