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Genomic Variant Analyses in Pyrethroid Resistant and Susceptible Malaria Vector, Anopheles sinensis


Anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in this species has impeded malaria control in the region. Previous studies found that An. sinensis populations from Yunnan Province, China were highly resistant to deltamethrin and did not carry mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene that cause knockdown resistance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that other genomic variants are associated with the resistance phenotype. Using paired-end whole genome sequencing (DNA-seq), we generated 108 Gb of DNA sequence from deltamethrin -resistant and -susceptible mosquito pools with an average coverage of 83.3× depth. Using a stringent filtering method, we identified a total of 916,926 single nucleotide variants (SNVs), including 32,240 non-synonymous mutations. A total of 958 SNVs differed significantly in allele frequency between deltamethrin -resistant and -susceptible mosquitoes. Of these, 43 SNVs were present within 37 genes that code for immunity, detoxification, cuticular, and odorant proteins. A subset of 12 SNVs were randomly selected for genotyping of individual mosquitoes by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and showed consistent allele frequencies with the pooled DNA-seq derived allele frequencies. In addition, copy number variations (CNVs) were detected in 56 genes, including 33 that contained amplification alleles and 23 that contained deletion alleles in resistant mosquitoes compared to susceptible mosquitoes. The genomic variants described here provide a useful resource for future studies on the genetic mechanism of insecticide resistance in this important malaria vector species.

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