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All along the watchtower: group 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic responses


Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are a subset of innate lymphocytes that responds to local, tissue-derived signals and initiates allergic immune responses. ILC2 activation promotes the recruitment of eosinophils, polarization of alternatively activated macrophages, and tissue-remodeling, processes associated with the 'weep and sweep' response to helminthic worm colonization and infection. ILC2s also coordinate both physiologic and pathologic type 2 allergic immune responses, including promoting normal tissue development and remodeling and driving allergic pathology such as atopic dermatitis and allergic asthma. In this review we summarize recent advances in ILC2 biology, particularly focusing on how local cells and signals coordinately regulate ILC2s, how this may influence physiologic processes, and how ILC2 cooperate with adaptive T helper type 2 cells to drive pathologic allergic inflammation.

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