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Food insecurity in relation to changes in hemoglobin A1c, self-efficacy, and fruit/vegetable intake during a diabetes educational intervention

  • Author(s): Lyles, CR
  • Wolf, MS
  • Schillinger, D
  • Davis, TC
  • DeWalt, D
  • Dahlke, AR
  • Curtis, L
  • Seligman, HK
  • et al.

Published Web Location

https://doi.org/10.2337/dc12-1961
Abstract

OBJECTIVE - Food insecurity is hypothesized to make diabetes self-management more difficult. We conducted a longitudinal assessment of food insecurity with several diabetes self-care measures. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We conducted a secondary, observational analysis of 665 low-income patients with diabetes, all of whom received self-management support as part of a larger diabetes educational intervention. We analyzed baseline food insecurity (measured by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Security module) in relation to changes in hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c) as well as self-reported diabetes self-efficacy and daily fruit and vegetable intake. We examined longitudinal differences using generalized estimating equation linear regression models, controlling for time, age, sex, race, income, and intervention arm. RESULTS - Overall, 57% of the sample had an income <$15,000. Participants who were food insecure (33%) were younger, had less income, and were more likely to be unemployed compared with participants who were food secure. At baseline, those who were food insecure had higher mean HbA1cvalues (8.4% vs. 8.0%) and lower self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable intake than those who were food secure (all P < 0.05). Compared with food-secure individuals, participants who were food insecure had significantly greater improvements in HbA1cover time (0.38% decrease compared with 0.01% decrease; P value for interaction <0.05) as well as in self-efficacy (P value for interaction <0.01). There was no significant difference in HbA1cby food security status at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS - Participants experiencing food insecurity had poorer diabetes-related measures at baseline butmade significant improvements in HbA1cand self-efficacy. Low-income patients who were food insecure may be particularly receptive to diabetes self-management support, even if interventions are not explicitly structured to address finances or food security challenges. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

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