Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California


UC San Francisco Previously Published Works bannerUCSF

Gender Norms and HIV Testing/Treatment Uptake: Evidence from a Large Population-Based Sample in South Africa.

  • Author(s): Pulerwitz, J
  • Gottert, A
  • Kahn, K
  • Haberland, N
  • Julien, A
  • Selin, A
  • Twine, R
  • Peacock, D
  • Gómez-Olivé, X
  • Lippman, SA
  • Pettifor, A
  • et al.

How does the endorsement of different dimensions of gender norms by men and/or women influence their use of HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment? This question was examined using data from a 2014 population-based survey of 1053 women and 1004 men, ages 18-49, in rural South Africa. We used a global measure for views toward gender norms (the GEM Scale), plus four subsets of scale items (all reliabilities ≥ 0.7). In multivariate analyses using the global measure, endorsement of inequitable gender norms was associated with more testing (AOR 2.47, p < 0.01) and less treatment use (AOR 0.15, p < 0.01) among women but not men. When examining specific subsets of inequitable norms (e.g., endorsing men as the primary decision-maker), decreased odds of treatment use was found for men as well (AOR 0.18, p < 0.01). Careful attention to the role specific gender norms play in HIV service uptake can yield useful programmatic recommendations.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
Current View