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Successes and opportunities for discovery of metal oxide photoanodes for solar fuels generators


The importance of metal oxide photoanodes in solar fuels technology has garnered concerted efforts in photoanode discovery in recent decades, which complement parallel efforts in development of analytical techniques and optimization strategies using standard photoanodes such as TiO2, Fe2O3 and BiVO4. Theoretical guidance of highthroughput experiments has been particularly effective in dramatically increasing the portfolio of metal oxide photoanodes, motivating a new era of photoanode development where the characterization and optimization techniques developed on traditional materials are applied to nascent photoanodes that exhibit visible light photoresponse. The compendium of metal oxide photoanodes presented in the present work can also serve as the basis for further technique development, with a primary goal to establish workflows for discovery of materials that perform better against the critical criteria of operational stability, visible light photoresponse, and photovoltage suitable for tandem absorber architectures.

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