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Pediatric intracranial nongalenic pial arteriovenous fistulas: Clinical features, angioarchitecture, and outcomes

  • Author(s): Hetts, SW
  • Keenan, K
  • Fullerton, HJ
  • Young, WL
  • English, JD
  • Gupta, N
  • Dowd, CF
  • Higashida, RT
  • Lawton, MT
  • Halbach, VV
  • et al.
Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: NGAVFs are rare vascular malformations usually presenting in infancy or childhood. We sought to identify clinical and angiographic predictors of clinical outcome for these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of a neurointerventional data base identified 386 pediatric patients with intracranial AVFs and AVMs, from which a cohort of 25 patients with NGAVF were selected for medical record and imaging analysis. RESULTS: NGAVFs constituted 7.3% of pediatric intracranial vascular lesions with a nondural arteriovenous shunt. Seven of 8 patients who presented in the first month of life had CHF and harbored large, complex fistulas with multiple sites of arteriovenous shunting. Single-hole fistulas predominated later in childhood and more frequently presented with seizures, hemorrhage, or focal neurologic deficits. More treatment procedures were performed in subjects presenting at ≤2 years of age compared with older children (median = 3 versus 2, P = .041), and in those harboring a multi-hole fistula versus those with a single-hole fistula (median = 3 versus 2, P = .003). Eighteen patients (72%) had complete posttreatment elimination of NGAVF shunting. Compared with patients presenting at >2 years of age, patients presenting in the first 2 years of life were more likely to have a multi-hole fistula (100% versus 25%, P = .0001) and to have a poor clinical outcome (54% versus 0%, P = .0052), defined as a pediatric mRS of ≥3. CONCLUSIONS: The morbidity of NGAVF appears higher than previously reported despite a somewhat higher rate of angiographic cure. Poor clinical outcome occurred primarily in patients with multi-hole NGAVFs presenting at ≤2 years of age.

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