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Transmission Sensitivities of Contact Ultrasonic Transducers and Their Applications.

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In all ultrasonic material evaluation methods, transducers and sensors play a key role of mechanoelectrical conversion. Their transduction characteristics must be known quantitatively in designing and implementing successful structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Yet, their calibration and verification have lagged behind most other aspects of SHM system development. This study aims to extend recent advances in quantifying the transmission and receiving sensitivities to normally incident longitudinal waves of ultrasonic transducers and acoustic emission sensors. This paper covers extending the range of detection to lower frequencies, expanding to areal and multiple sensing methods and examining transducer loading effects. Using the refined transmission characteristics, the receiving sensitivities of transducers and sensors were reexamined under the conditions representing their actual usage. Results confirm that the interfacial wave transmission is governed by wave propagation theory and that the receiving sensitivity of resonant acoustic emission sensors peaks at antiresonance.

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