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Binding and antigen presentation of ceramide-containing glycolipids by soluble mouse and human CD1d molecules.

  • Author(s): Naidenko, OV
  • Maher, JK
  • Ernst, WA
  • Sakai, T
  • Modlin, RL
  • Kronenberg, M
  • et al.

We have purified soluble mouse and human CD1d molecules to assess the structural requirements for lipid antigen presentation by CD1. Plate-bound CD1d molecules from either species can present the glycolipid alpha-galactosyl ceramide (alpha-GalCer) to mouse natural killer T cells, formally demonstrating both the in vitro formation of antigenic complexes, and the presentation of alpha-GalCer by these two CD1d molecules. Using surface plasmon resonance, we show that at neutral pH, mouse CD1 and human CD1d bind to immobilized alpha-GalCer, unlike human CD1b, which requires acidic pH for lipid antigen binding. The CD1d molecules can also bind both to the nonantigenic beta-GalCer and to phosphatidylethanolamine, indicating that diverse lipids can bind to CD1d. These studies provide the first quantitative analysis of monomeric lipid antigen-CD1 interactions, and they demonstrate that the orientation of the galactose, or even the nature of the polar head group, are likely to be more important for T cell receptor contact than CD1d binding.

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