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Influence of convective processes on weather research and forecasting model precipitation biases over East Asia


AbstractDynamical downscaling with a 20 km horizontal resolution was undertaken over East Asia for the period May–August in 1991–2015 using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Grell-3D ensemble cumulus parameterization as a product of the Impact of Initialized Land Temperature and Snowpack on Sub-Seasonal to Seasonal Prediction (LS4P) program. Simulated climatological precipitation biases were investigated over land during June when heavy precipitation occurred. Simulations underestimated precipitation along the Meiyu/Baiu rainband, while overestimating it farther north. Dry and wet biases expanded to south and north of the Yangtze River in China, respectively, marking years with poor precipitation simulations. Model biases in synoptic-scale circulation patterns indicate a weakened clockwise circulation over the western North Pacific in the model due to active convection there, and suppressed northward moisture transport to the Meiyu/Baiu rainband. Moisture convergence was slightly enhanced over central China due to an apparent anticyclonic circulation bias over northern China. In years with large biases, positive feedback between reduced moisture inflow and inactive convection occurred over southern China, while moisture transport to central China intensified on regional scales, with amplification of dry and wet biases over China. The Kain–Fritch scheme was used to test the influence of cumulus parameterization, improving the dry bias over southern China due to the modification of synoptic-scale circulation patterns in the lower troposphere. However, precipitation was further overestimated over central China, with the accuracy of precipitation distribution deteriorating.

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