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Pd(111) Surface Step Dynamics During the Growth of Monolayer Graphene


In situ low-energy microscopy (LEEM) was employed to investigate Pd(111) surface step dynamics during the growth of monolayer graphene. Monolayer graphene was grown via surface segregation of carbon on the Pd(111). To study the Pd(111) surface step dynamics, the LEEM images were acquired prior to monolayer graphene growth. The sublimation of atomic layers from the palladium surface was observed at ~1200 K before the formation of monolayer graphene. The sublimation occurred by removal of single spiral steps on the surface. The rotation frequencies of the single spiral and the step speeds were measured as a function of temperature. The results are related to the activation barriers of surface processes. Oxidation of graphene on Pd(111) was also studied in this thesis.

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