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Atypical anaplastic astrocytoma with unique molecular features and diffuse leptomeningeal spread in a child with long-term survival.


Paediatric high-grade gliomas, including glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma, make up 8%-12% of paediatric central nervous system tumours 1 and have poor prognosis, with 2-year survival less than 30% 2 and overall survival less than 10%. The only known prognostic factors in this population include extent of resection and tumour histological grade. We present the case of a 9-year-old boy with disseminated anaplastic astrocytoma treated with subtotal resection, craniospinal radiation and temozolomide, with 8-year survival despite metastatic disease at presentation and subtotal resection. Next generation cancer gene panel sequencing revealed an usual pattern of 12 amplifications and four mutations not previously described.

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