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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Electric current control of creation and annihilation of sub-100 nm magnetic bubbles examined by full-field transmission soft X-ray microscopy


The effect of electric current pulses on a sub-100 nm magnetic bubble state in a symmetric Pt/Co multilayer was directly observed using a full-field transmission soft X-ray microscope (MTXM). Field-induced evolution of the magnetic stripe domains into isolated bubbles with their sizes down to 100 nm was imaged under varying external magnetic fields. Electric current pulses were then applied to the created magnetic bubbles, and it was observed that the bubbles could be either created or annihilated by the current pulse depending on the strength of applied magnetic field. The results suggest that the Joule heating plays a critical role in the formation and/or elimination of the bubbles and skyrmions. Finally, the schematic phase diagram for the creation and annihilation of bubbles is presented, suggesting an optimized scheme with the combination of magnetic field and electric current necessary to utilize skyrmions in the practical devices.

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