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Postoperative risk of IDH mutant glioma-associated seizures and their potential management with IDH mutant inhibitors

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Seizures are a frequent complication of adult-type diffuse gliomas, and are often difficult to control with medications. Gliomas with mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDHmut) are more likely than IDH-wild type (IDHwt) gliomas to cause seizures as part of their initial clinical presentation. However, whether IDHmut is also associated with seizures during the remaining disease course, and whether IDHmut inhibitors can reduce seizure risk, are unclear. Clinical multivariable analyses showed that preoperative seizures, glioma location, extent of resection, and glioma molecular subtype (including IDHmut status) all contributed to postoperative seizure risk in adult-type diffuse glioma patients, and that postoperative seizures were often associated with tumor recurrence. Experimentally, the metabolic product of IDHmut, d-2-hydroxyglutarate, rapidly synchronized neuronal spike firing in a seizure-like manner, but only when non-neoplastic glial cells were present. In vitro and in vivo models recapitulated IDHmut glioma-associated seizures, and IDHmut inhibitors currently being evaluated in glioma clinical trials inhibited seizures in those models, independent of their effects on glioma growth. These data show that postoperative seizure risk in adult-type diffuse gliomas varies in large part by molecular subtype, and that IDHmut inhibitors could play a key role in mitigating such risk in IDHmut glioma patients.

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