Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC San Diego

UC San Diego Previously Published Works bannerUC San Diego

Immunopathological changes, complications, sequelae and immunological memory in COVID-19 patients


Confirmed SARS-CoV-2-caused disease (COVID-19) cases have reached 275.65 million worldwide. Although the majority of COVID-19 patients present mild to moderate symptoms, some have severe complications including death. We first reviewed the pathogenesis on ACE2, a binding receptor of SARS-CoV-2 expressed in multiple organs, and prevalent multinucleate syncytia in the lung tissues of COVID-19 patients. Then, we evaluated the pathological, immunological changes and sequelae in the major organs. Finally, we reviewed the immunological memory after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. The binding of SARS-Cov-2 to ACE2 receptor results in reduced ACE2 protein levels, which may lead to elevated susceptibility to inflammation, cell death, organ failure, and potentially severe illness. These damages increase the risk of health problems over a long period, which result in many complications. The complications in multiple organs lead to the increased risk of long-term health problems that require additional attention. A multidisciplinary care team is necessary for further management and recovery of the COVID-19 survivors. Many COVID-19 patients will probably make antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 virus for most of their lives, and the immunity against reinfection would last for 3-61 months.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View