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Advances in Endoscopic Photoacoustic Imaging.


Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is able to provide extremely high molecular contrast while maintaining the superior imaging depth of ultrasound (US) imaging. Conventional microscopic PA imaging has limited access to deeper tissue due to strong light scattering and attenuation. Endoscopic PA technology enables direct delivery of excitation light into the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body for functional and molecular PA imaging of target tissue. Various endoscopic PA probes have been developed for different applications, including the intravascular imaging of lipids in atherosclerotic plaque and endoscopic imaging of colon cancer. In this paper, the authors review representative probe configurations and corresponding preclinical applications. In addition, the potential challenges and future directions of endoscopic PA imaging are discussed.

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