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Vitamin D3 Repletion Improves Vascular Function, as Measured by Cardiorenal Biomarkers in a High-Risk African American Cohort


Background: 25-hydroxy vitamin D (Vit D)-deficiency is common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD). African Americans (AAs) suffer disproportionately from CKD and CVD, and 80% of AAs are Vit D-deficient. The impact of Vit D repletion on cardio-renal biomarkers in AAs is unknown. We examined Vit D repletion on full-length osteopontin (flOPN), c-terminal fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which are implicated in vascular and kidney pathology. Methods: We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled study of high-risk AAs with Vit D deficiency, treated with 100,000 IU Vit D3 (cholecalciferol; n = 65) or placebo (n = 65) every 4 weeks for 12 weeks. We measured kidney function (CKD-EPI eGFR), protein-to-creatinine ratio, vascular function (pulse wave velocity; PWV), augmentation index, waist circumference, sitting, and 24-h-ambulatory blood pressure (BP), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and serum calcium at baseline and study end, and compared Vit D levels with laboratory variables. We quantified plasma FGF-23, PAI-1, and flOPN by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple regression analyzed the relationship between log flOPN, FGF-23, and PAI-1 with vascular and renal risk factors. Results: Compared to placebo, Vit D3 repletion increased Vit D3 2-fold (p < 0.0001), decreased iPTH by 12% (p < 0.01) and was significantly correlated with PWV (p < 0.009). Log flOPN decreased (p = 0.03), log FGF-23 increased (p = 0.04), but log PAI-1 did not change. Multiple regression indicated association between log flOPN and PWV (p = 0.04) and diastolic BP (p = 0.02), while log FGF-23 was associated with diastolic BP (p = 0.05), and a trend with eGFR (p = 0.06). Conclusion: Vit D3 repletion may reduce flOPN and improve vascular function in high risk AAs with Vit D deficiency.

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