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Development of Perspective Taking in Relation to Age, Education, and the Presence of Community Features Associated With Industrialization: A Four-Culture Study


This study examined responses to questions oriented toward revealing the development of perspective taking. The sample comprised 180 three- to nine-year-old children in four traditional communities (in Belize, Kenya, Nepal, and American Samoa). Ten scenarios that asked the children about knowledge of handedness and also what was visible from their own and from another person's perspective were used. In all groups, the proportion of correct answers improved with age. Degree of industrialization-which had predicted better cognitive performance in other testing with these same children-was also a predictor of perspective taking on some of the items. Discussion includes possible interpretation of the results. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

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