Biomimetic protein nanoparticles facilitate enhanced dendritic cell activation and cross-presentation.
- Author(s): Molino, Nicholas M
- Anderson, Amanda KL
- Nelson, Edward L
- Wang, Szu-Wen
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1021/nn403085w
Many current cancer vaccine strategies suffer from the inability to mount a CD8 T cell response that is strong enough to overcome the low immunogenicity of tumors. Viruses naturally possess the sizes, geometries, and physical properties for which the immune system has evolved to recognize, and mimicking those properties with nanoparticles can produce robust platforms for vaccine design. Using the nonviral E2 core of pyruvate dehydrogenase, we have engineered a viral-mimicking vaccine platform capable of encapsulating dendritic cell (DC)-activating CpG molecules in an acid-releasable manner and displaying MHC I-restricted SIINFEKL peptide epitopes. Encapsulated CpG activated bone marrow-derived DCs at a 25-fold lower concentration in vitro when delivered with the E2 nanoparticle than with unbound CpG alone. Combining CpG and SIINFEKL within a single multifunctional particle induced ∼3-fold greater SIINFEKL display on MHC I by DCs over unbound peptide. Importantly, combining CpG and SIINFEKL to the E2 nanoparticle for simultaneous temporal and spatial delivery to DCs showed increased and prolonged CD8 T cell activation, relative to free peptide or peptide-bound E2. By codelivering peptide epitopes and CpG activator in a particle of optimal DC-uptake size, we demonstrate the ability of a noninfectious protein nanoparticle to mimic viral properties and facilitate enhanced DC activation and cross-presentation.