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The Pathobiome in Animal and Plant Diseases


A growing awareness of the diversity and ubiquity of microbes (eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses) associated with larger 'host' organisms has led to the realisation that many diseases thought to be caused by one primary agent are the result of interactions between multiple taxa and the host. Even where a primary agent can be identified, its effect is often moderated by other symbionts. Therefore, the one pathogen-one disease paradigm is shifting towards the pathobiome concept, integrating the interaction of multiple symbionts, host, and environment in a new understanding of disease aetiology. Taxonomically, pathobiomes are variable across host species, ecology, tissue type, and time. Therefore, a more functionally driven understanding of pathobiotic systems is necessary, based on gene expression, metabolic interactions, and ecological processes.

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