Fast ion profile stiffness due to the resonance overlap of multiple Alfvén eigenmodes
- Author(s): Todo, Y;
- Van Zeeland, MA;
- Heidbrink, WW
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/56/11/112008
Fast ion pressure profiles flattened by multiple Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) are investigated for various neutral beam deposition powers in a multi-phase simulation, which is a combination of classical simulation and hybrid simulation for energetic particles interacting with a magnetohydrodynamic fluid. Monotonic degradation of fast ion confinement and fast ion profile stiffness is found with increasing beam deposition power. The confinement degradation and profile stiffness are caused by a sudden increase in fast ion transport flux brought about by AEs for fast ion pressure gradients above a critical value. The critical pressure gradient and the corresponding beam deposition power depend on the radial location. The fast ion pressure gradient stays moderately above the critical value, and the profiles of the fast ion pressure and fast ion transport flux spread radially outward from the inner region, where the beam is injected. It is found that the square root of the MHD fluctuation energy is proportional to the beam deposition power. Analysis of the time evolutions of the fast ion energy flux profiles reveals that intermittent avalanches take place with contributions from the multiple eigenmodes. Surface of section plots demonstrate that the resonance overlap of multiple eigenmodes accounts for the sudden increase in fast ion transport with increasing beam power. The critical gradient and critical beam power for the profile stiffness are substantially higher than the marginal stability threshold.