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Therapy of recurrent high grade gliomas with surgery, and autologous mitogen activated IL-2 stimulated killer (MAK) lymphocytes: I. Enhancement of MAK lytic activity and cytokine production by PHA and clinical use of PHA.

  • Author(s): Jeffes, EW;
  • Beamer, YB;
  • Jacques, S;
  • Silberman, RS;
  • Vayuvegula, B;
  • Gupta, S;
  • Coss, JS;
  • Yamamoto, RS;
  • Granger, GA
  • et al.

Nineteen patients with recurrent high grade gliomas were treated in a phase I/II trial with aggressive debulking of the tumor, mitogen activated IL-2 stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes (MAK cells), and rIL-2. Phytohemagglutin (PHA) was introduced into the tumor site in 16 patients prior to implanting MAK cells and IL-2 in an attempt to trigger more effective lysis of the tumor in vivo. In vitro both TNF bioactivity and cytolytic activity of long term cultured MAK (LMAK) cells were dramatically enhanced by adding PHA to the cultures of these activated PBL. Three of eleven patients (27%) had a decrease in size of the enhancing lesion on CT and/or MRI. Seven (37%) patients clinically improved. Median survival after therapy was 30 weeks. PHA was shown to be safe in vivo and more effective than IL-2 triggering enhanced effector function in vitro.

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