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Recurrent secondary genomic alterations in desmoplastic small round cell tumors.


BACKGROUND: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare, highly aggressive, translocation-associated soft-tissue sarcoma that primarily affects children, adolescents, and young adults, with a striking male predominance. It is characterized by t(11;22) generating a novel EWSR1-WT1 fusion gene. Secondary genomic alterations are rarely described. METHODS: Tumor tissue from 83 DSRCT patients was assayed by hybrid-capture based comprehensive genomic profiling, FoundationOne® Heme next generation sequencing analysis of 406 genes and RNA sequencing of 265 genes. Tumor mutation burden was calculated from a minimum of 1.4 Mb sequenced DNA. Microsatellite instability status was determined by a novel algorithm analyzing 114 specific loci. RESULTS: Comprehensive genomic profiling identified several genomically-defined DSRCT subgroups. Recurrent genomic alterations were most frequently detected in FGFR4, ARID1A, TP53, MSH3, and MLL3 genes. With the exception of FGFR4, where the genomic alterations predicted activation, most of the alterations in the remaining genes predicted gene inactivation. No DSRCT were TMB or MSI high. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, recurrent secondary somatic alterations in FGFR4, ARID1A, TP53, MSH3, and MLL3 were detected in 82% of DSRCT, which is significantly greater than previously reported. These alterations may have both prognostic and therapeutic implications.

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