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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Evaluation of Heterologous Vaginal SHIV SF162p4 Infection Following Vaccination with a Polyvalent Clade B Virus-Like Particle Vaccine


AbstractThe vast diversity of HIV-1 infections has greatly impeded the development of a successful HIV-1/AIDS vaccine. Previous vaccine work has demonstrated limited levels of protection against SHIV/SIV infection, but protection was observed only when the challenge virus was directly matched to the vaccine strain. As it is likely impossible to directly match the vaccine strain to all infecting strains in nature, it is necessary to develop an HIV-1 vaccine that can protect against a heterologous viral challenge. In this study we investigated the ability of polyvalent and consensus vaccines to protect against a heterologous clade B challenge. Rhesus macaques were vaccinated with ConB or PolyB virus-like particle vaccines. All vaccines were highly immunogenic with high titers of antibody found in all vaccinated groups against SIV Gag. Antibody responses were also observed against a diverse panel of clade B envelopes. Following vaccination nonhuman primates (NHPs) were challenged via the vaginal route with SHIVSF162p4. The PolyB vaccine induced a 66.7% reduction in the rate of infection as well as causing a two log reduction in viral burden if infection was not blocked. ConB vaccination had no effect on either the infection rate or viral burden. These results indicate that a polyvalent clade-matched vaccine is better able to protect against a heterologous challenge as compared to a consensus vaccine.

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