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Vaginal Cytomegalovirus Shedding Before and After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Rakai, Uganda.

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Vaginal shedding of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was determined longitudinally among 96 women coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus 2, and CMV starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) during a placebo-controlled trial of HSV-2 suppression with acyclovir in Rakai, Uganda. Vaginal CMV was detected in 75 of 96 women (78.0%) and 379 of 1080 individual visits (35.1%). ART status, higher HIV RNA viral load before ART initiation, and younger age were significantly associated with increased frequency of CMV shedding (P < .01). Compared to pre-ART, CMV shedding peaked from month 2 to month 4 after ART initiation, suggesting possible immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Further studies need to determine the clinical significance of asymptomatic CMV shedding.

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