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Extravasated Contrast Material in Penetrating Abdominopelvic Trauma: Dual-Contrast Dual-Energy CT for Improved Diagnosis—Preliminary Results in an Animal Model



To compare the diagnostic performance of dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) with two simultaneously administered contrast agents (hereafter, dual contrast) with that of conventional CT in the evaluation of the presence and source of extravasation in penetrating abdominopelvic trauma.

Materials and methods

Institutional animal care and use committee approval was obtained, and the study was performed in accordance with National Institutes of Health guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals. Five rabbits with bowel trauma, vascular penetrating trauma, or both were imaged with simultaneous iodinated intravenous and bismuth subsalicylate enteric contrast material at DE CT. Four attending radiologists and six radiology residents without prior DE CT experience each evaluated 10 extraluminal collections to identify the vascular and/or enteric origin of extravasation and assess their level of diagnostic confidence, first with virtual monochromatic images simulating conventional CT and then with DE CT material decomposition attenuation maps.


Overall accuracy of identification of source of extravasation increased from 78% with conventional CT to 92% with DE CT (157 of 200 diagnoses vs 184 of 200 diagnoses, respectively; P < .001). Nine radiologists were more accurate with DE CT; one had no change. Mean confidence increased from 67% to 81% with DE CT (P < .001).


In a rabbit abdominopelvic trauma model, dual-contrast DE CT significantly increased accuracy and confidence in the diagnosis of vascular versus enteric extravasated contrast material.

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