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G Run-mediated Recognition of Proteolipid Protein and DM20 5′ Splice Sites by U1 Small Nuclear RNA Is Regulated by Context and Proximity to the Splice Site*


Highly conserved G runs, G1M2 and ISE, regulate the proteolipid protein (PLP)/DM20 ratio. We have investigated recruitment of U1 small nuclear ribonuclear protein (snRNP) by G1M2 and ISE and examined the effect of splice site strength, distance, and context on G run function. G1M2 is necessary for initial recruitment of U1snRNP to the DM20 5' splice site independent of the strength of the splice site. G1M2 regulates E complex formation and supports DM20 splicing when functional U1snRNP is reduced. By contrast, the ISE is not required for the initial recruitment of U1snRNP to the PLP 5' splice site. However, in close proximity to either the DM20 or the PLP 5' splice site, the ISE recruits U1snRNP to both splice sites. The ISE enhances DM20 splicing, whereas close to the PLP 5' splice site, it inhibits PLP splicing. Splicing enhancement and inhibition are mediated by heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein (hnRNP)H/F. The data show that recognition of the DM20 5' splice site depends on G run-mediated recruitment of U1snRNA, whereas a complex interaction between the ISE G runs, context and position determines the functional outcome on splicing. The data suggest that different mechanisms underlie G run-mediated recognition of 5' splice sites and that context and position play a critical role.

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