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Diagnostic associations of gene expression signatures in prostate cancer tissue


Purpose of review Over the past several years, multiple biomarkers designed to improve prostate cancer risk stratification have become commercially available, while others are still being developed. In this review, we focus on the evidence supporting recently reported biomarkers, with a focus on gene expression signatures. Recent findings Many recently developed biomarkers are able to improve upon traditional risk assessment at nearly all stages of disease. Prominent examples are reviewed in this article. ConfirmMDx uses gene methylation patterns to improve detection of clinically significant cancer following negative biopsy. Both the Prolaris and Oncotype DX Genomic Prostate Score tests can improve risk stratification following biopsy, especially among men who are eligible for active surveillance. Prolaris and the Decipher genomic classifier have been associated with risk of adverse outcome following prostatectomy, while Oncotype DX is being studied in this setting. Finally, recent reports of the association of androgen receptor-V7 in circulating tumor cells with resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone raise the possibility of extending the use of genetic biomarkers to advanced disease. Summary With the development of multiple genetic expression panels in prostate cancer, careful study and validation of these tests and integration into clinical practice will be critical to realizing the potential of these tools.

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