An EFE model on skin-sleeve interactions during arm rotation.
- Author(s): Xing, Malcolm M Q;
- Sun, Zhiguo;
- Pan, Ning;
- Zhong, Wen;
- Maibach, Howard I
- et al.
Skin and garment constitute a dynamic contact system for human body comfort and protection. Although dermatological injuries due to fabric actions during human body movement are common, there is still no general guidance or standard for measuring or evaluating skin/garment contact interactions, especially, during intense sports. A three-dimensional explicit finite element (EFE) model combined with Augmented Lagrange algorithm (ALA) is developed to simulate interactions between skin and fabric during rotation of the arm. Normalized effective shear stresses at the interface between skin and the sleeve during the arm rotation are provided to reflect the severity of the interactions. The effects due to changes in fabric properties, fabric-skin gap, and arm rotation rate are also illustrated. It has been demonstrated from our predictions that factors such as elastic modulus, friction coefficients, density of fabric, and the initial gap between skin and fabric influence significantly the shear stress and thus the discomfort and even injury potential to skin during intensive body movement such as sports and military. Thus this study for the first time confirms quantitatively that poorly chosen fabric with inappropriate garment design renders adverse actions on human skin.