The history and use of aerial and space-based remote sensing and ground based terrestrial laser scanning in archaeology
An overview of the history of aerial and satellite-based remote sensing in archaeology is given, from the initial technological development to a chronicling of the incorporation of each technology into the discipline. A discussion of some of the main questions involving the utilization of each technology follows, with specific emphasis on the issue of scale in relation to satellite and aerial photography. New incarnations of GIS are offered as a solution to this and other issues. A novel history of ground based terrestrial laser scanning is presented as well as a general description of the technology involved. Problems of implementation and utilization of ground based terrestrial laser scanning in archaeology are also discussed, with particular importance given to operational limitations faced in field scanning of cultural sites. The laser scanning workflow is examined and a step-by-step analysis from initial site assessment, to optimization of data capture, post-processing, and to final media deliverable is undertaken. Problems relating to individual steps are highlighted and discussed with different solutions presented. A general assessment of the state of the art of each technology will also be discussed, with each discussion based from archaeological case studies undertaken by the author.