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V-type H+-ATPase in the symbiosome membrane is a conserved mechanism for host control of photosynthesis in anthozoan photosymbioses


In reef-building corals (order Scleractinia) and giant clams (phylum Molluca), V-type H+-ATPase (VHA) in host cells is part of a carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) that regulates photosynthetic rates of their symbiotic algae. Here, we show that VHA plays a similar role in the sea anemone Anemonia majano, a member of the order Actinaria and sister group to the Scleractinia, which in contrast to their colonial calcifying coral relatives is a solitary, soft-bodied taxa. Western blotting and immunofluorescence revealed that VHA was abundantly present in the host-derived symbiosome membrane surrounding the photosymbionts. Pharmacological inhibition of VHA activity in individual anemones resulted in an approximately 80% decrease of photosynthetic O2 production. These results extend the presence of a host-controlled VHA-dependent CCM to non-calcifying cnidarians of the order Actiniaria, suggesting it is widespread among photosymbiosis between aquatic invertebrates and Symbiodiniaceae algae.

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