Regulation of the Immune Response by TGF-β: From Conception to Autoimmunity and Infection.
Published Web Locationhttp://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/cgi/reprint/cshperspect.a022236v1.pdf?ijkey=pssazitKCzfUEVL&keytype=finite
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in both suppressive and inflammatory immune responses. After 30 years of intense study, we have only begun to elucidate how TGF-β alters immunity under various conditions. Under steady-state conditions, TGF-β regulates thymic T-cell selection and maintains homeostasis of the naïve T-cell pool. TGF-β inhibits cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), Th1-, and Th2-cell differentiation while promoting peripheral (p)Treg-, Th17-, Th9-, and Tfh-cell generation, and T-cell tissue residence in response to immune challenges. Similarly, TGF-β controls the proliferation, survival, activation, and differentiation of B cells, as well as the development and functions of innate cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. Collectively, TGF-β plays a pivotal role in maintaining peripheral tolerance against self- and innocuous antigens, such as food, commensal bacteria, and fetal alloantigens, and in controlling immune responses to pathogens.