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The Intersection of HIV, Social Vulnerability, and Reproductive Health: Analysis of Women Living with HIV in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 1996 to 2016.

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Comprehensive care for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and social needs for women living with HIV remains limited globally. We aimed to assess trends in baseline sociodemographic, clinical, sexual, and reproductive characteristics among a cohort of HIV-infected women in Rio de Janeiro from 1996 to 2016. Participants were stratified into four time periods based on year of enrollment; we compared cross-sectional data from each period. Of 1361 participants (median age 36), most were black or mixed race (60.1%), unemployed (52.1%), and without secondary education (54%). Adolescent pregnancy was common (51.5%), and 18.3% reported sexual debut at < 15 years old. Nearly half (45.2%) had < 5 lifetime sexual partners, yet prior syphilis and oncogenic human papillomavirus prevalence were 10.9% and 43.1%, respectively. Lifetime prevalence of induced abortion was 30.3%, and 16% used no contraceptive method. Future research should explore interactions between social vulnerability, HIV, and poor SRH outcomes and healthcare models to alleviate these disparities.

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