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Digital parallel frequency-domain spectroscopy for tissue imaging.

  • Author(s): Arnesano, Cosimo
  • Santoro, Ylenia
  • Gratton, Enrico
  • et al.

Near-infrared (NIR) (650 to 1000 nm) optical properties of turbid media can be quantified accurately and noninvasively using methods based on diffuse reflectance or transmittance, such as frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM). Conventional FDPM techniques based on white-light steady-state (SS) spectral measurements in conjunction with the acquisition of frequency-domain (FD) data at selected wavelengths using laser diodes are used to measure broadband NIR scattering-corrected absorption spectra of turbid media. These techniques are limited by the number of wavelength points used to obtain FD data and by the sweeping technique used to collect FD data over a relatively large range. We have developed a method that introduces several improvements in the acquisition of optical parameters, based on the digital parallel acquisition of a comb of frequencies and on the use of a white laser as a single light source for both FD and SS measurements. The source, due to the high brightness, allows a higher penetration depth with an extremely low power on the sample. The parallel acquisition decreases the time required by standard serial systems that scan through a range of modulation frequencies. Furthermore, all-digital acquisition removes analog noise, avoids the analog mixer, and does not create radiofrequency interference or emission.

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