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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Smoking related outcomes before and after implementation of tobacco-free grounds in residential substance use disorder treatment programs.

  • Author(s): Gubner, Noah R
  • Williams, Denise D
  • Le, Thao
  • Garcia, Wayne
  • Vijayaraghavan, Maya
  • Guydish, Joseph
  • et al.

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BACKGROUND:This study examined the impact of a tobacco-free grounds (TFG) policy and the California $2.00/pack tobacco tax increase on tobacco use among individuals in residential substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. METHODS:We conducted three cross-sectional surveys of clients enrolled in three residential SUD treatment programs. Wave 1 (Pre-TFG) included 190 clients, wave 2 (post-TFG and pre-tax increase) included 200 clients, and wave 3 (post-tax increase) included 201 clients. Demographic and tobacco-use characteristics were first compared between waves using bivariate comparisons. Regression models were used to compare each outcome with survey wave as the predictor, while adjusting for demographic characteristics and nesting of participants within programs. RESULTS:Odds of clients being current smokers was lower (AOR = 0.43, 95%CI = 0.30,0.60) after implementation of TFG compared to baseline. Adjusted mean ratio (AMR) for cigarettes per day was lower post-TFG compared to baseline (AMR = 0.70, CI = 0.59, 0.83). There were no differences, across waves, in tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, or services received by program clients, or use of nicotine replacement therapy. Increased cigarette taxation was not associated with reductions in client smoking. CONCLUSION:Implementation of a TFG policy was associated with a lower prevalence of client smoking among individuals in residential SUD treatment. Increased state cigarette excise taxes were not associated with a further reduction in client smoking in the presence of TFG policies, though this may have been confounded by relaxing of the TFG policy. SUD treatment programs should promote TFG policies and increase tobacco cessation services for clients.

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