Measuring Gender Role Conflict, Internalized Stigma, and Racial and Sexual Identity in Behaviorally Bisexual Black Men.
- Author(s): Del Pino, Homero E
- Steers, W Neil
- Lee, Martin
- McCuller, Jason
- Hays, Ron D
- Harawa, Nina T
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-021-01925-w
Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW) experience pressure to fill hypermasculine ideals and may not identify with "gay" cultural norms. Existing measures of gender role expectations and internalized homophobia are not culturally appropriate for BMSMW. Researchers generally measure categorical identification with race, gender, and sexual orientation groups separately, whereas BMSMW may identify with multiple categories. We modified the Gender Role Conflict Scale to create the M-GRCS and the Internalized Homophobia Scale to include biphobia (Internalized Bi/Homophobia Scale, IBHS). To examine identification at the intersection of race, gender, and sexual orientation, we created 11 Integrated Race and Sexuality Scale (IRSS) items. With data from 429 BMSMW, we conducted exploratory factor analysis of the 59 items using categorical principal axis factoring with unweighted least squares extraction and Promax factor rotation. We created simple-summated multi-item scales and evaluated their construct validity. The rotated solution yielded four factors with 47 items and a simple factor structure: M-GRCS defined two factors (α = .93 for restricted emotionality/affection; .87 for success/power/competition); the IBHS (α = .89) and IRSS (α = .74) each defined a single factor. The IRSS factor was positively correlated with the Lukwago Racial Pride Scale, r(417) = .40. The IBHS factor was negatively correlated with the IRSS factor, r(414) = - .22. The two M-GRCS factors suggest that the construct of hypermasculinity impacts BMSMW. The high IBHS reliability indicates that homophobia and biphobia were positively correlated in this sample. These three scales have potential for future studies with BMSMW.