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The age distribution of global soil carbon inferred from radiocarbon measurements

  • Author(s): Shi, Z
  • Allison, SD
  • He, Y
  • Levine, PA
  • Hoyt, AM
  • Beem-Miller, J
  • Zhu, Q
  • Wieder, WR
  • Trumbore, S
  • Randerson, JT
  • et al.
Abstract

© 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited. Soils contain more carbon than the atmosphere and vegetation combined. An increased flow of carbon from the atmosphere into soil pools could help mitigate anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and climate change. Yet we do not know how quickly soils might respond because the age distribution of soil carbon is uncertain. Here we used 789 radiocarbon (∆14C) profiles, along with other geospatial information, to create globally gridded datasets of mineral soil ∆14C and mean age. We found that soil depth is a primary driver of ∆14C, whereas climate (for example, mean annual temperature) is a major control on the spatial pattern of ∆14C in surface soil. Integrated to a depth of 1 m, global soil carbon has a mean age of 4,830 ± 1,730 yr, with older carbon in deeper layers and permafrost regions. In contrast, vertically resolved land models simulate ∆14C values that imply younger carbon ages and a more rapid carbon turnover. Our data-derived estimates of older mean soil carbon age suggest that soils will accumulate less carbon than predicted by current Earth system models over the twenty-first century. Reconciling these models with the global distribution of soil radiocarbon will require a better representation of the mechanisms that control carbon persistence in soils.

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