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Dynamic of CSF and serum biomarkers in HIV-1 subtype C encephalitis with CNS genetic compartmentalization-case study

  • Author(s): de Almeida, Sergio M
  • Rotta, Indianara
  • Ribeiro, Clea E
  • Oliveira, Michelli F
  • Chaillon, Antoine
  • de Pereira, Ana Paula
  • Cunha, Ana Paula
  • Zonta, Marise
  • Bents, Joao Franca
  • Raboni, Sonia M
  • Smith, Davey
  • Letendre, Scott
  • Ellis, Ronald J
  • et al.
Abstract

Despite the effective suppression of viremia with antiretroviral therapy, HIV can still replicate in the central nervous system (CNS). This was a longitudinal study of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum dynamics of several biomarkers related to inflammation, the blood-brain barrier, neuronal injury, and IgG intrathecal synthesis in serial samples of CSF and serum from a patient infected with HIV-1 subtype C with CNS compartmentalization.The phylogenetic analyses of plasma and CSF samples in an acute phase using next-generation sequencing and F-statistics analysis of C2-V3 haplotypes revealed distinct compartmentalized CSF viruses in paired CSF and peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. The CSF biomarker analysis in this patient showed that symptomatic CSF escape is accompanied by CNS inflammation, high levels of cell and humoral immune biomarkers, CNS barrier dysfunction, and an increase in neuronal injury biomarkers with demyelization. Independent and isolated HIV replication can occur in the CNS, even in HIV-1 subtype C, leading to compartmentalization and development of quasispecies distinct from the peripheral plasma. These immunological aspects of the HIV CNS escape have not been described previously. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CNS HIV escape and compartmentalization in HIV-1 subtype C.

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