Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC Irvine

UC Irvine Previously Published Works bannerUC Irvine

Hyponatremia, Hypernatremia, and Mortality in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease With and Without Congestive Heart Failure



Hyponatremia is common in patients with conditions such as congestive heart failure and is associated with increased mortality in hospitalized patients. Congestive heart failure is common in patients with chronic kidney disease, but the association of serum sodium concentration with mortality in such patients is not well characterized.

Methods and results

We examined the association of serum sodium concentration with all-cause mortality in a nationally representative cohort of 655 493 US veterans with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (95 961 [15%] of them with congestive heart failure). Associations were examined in time-dependent Cox models with adjustment for potential confounders. During a median follow-up of 5.5 years, a total of 193 956 patients died (mortality rate, 62.5/1000 patient-years; 95% confidence interval, 62.2-62.8). The association of serum sodium level with mortality was U-shaped, with the lowest mortality seen in patients with sodium level of 140 mEq/L and with both lower and higher levels showing significant associations with increased mortality. Patients with serum sodium levels of <130, 130 to 135.9, 145.1 to 150, and ≥150 mEq/L compared with 136 to 145 mEq/L had multivariable-adjusted mortality hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.93 (1.83-2.03), 1.28 (1.26-1.30), 1.33 (1.28-1.38), and 1.56 (1.33-1.83) (P<0.001 for all). The associations remained consistent in subgroups of patients with and without congestive heart failure.


Both lower and higher serum sodium levels are independently associated with higher mortality in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease, irrespective of the presence or absence of congestive heart failure.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View