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Understanding macroscale functionality of metal halide perovskites in terms of nanoscale heterogeneities

  • Author(s): Song, TB
  • Sharp, ID
  • Sutter-Fella, CM
  • et al.
Abstract

Hybrid metal halide perovskites have shown an unprecedented rise as semiconductor building blocks for solar energy conversion and light-emitting applications. Currently, the field moves empirically towards more and more complex chemical compositions, including mixed halide quadruple cation compounds that allow optical properties to be tuned and show promise for better stability. Despite tremendous progress in the field, there is a need for better understanding of mechanisms of efficiency loss and instabilities to facilitate rational optimization of composition. Starting from the device level and then diving into nanoscale properties, we highlight how structural and compositional heterogeneities affect macroscopic optoelectronic characteristics. Furthermore, we provide an overview of some of the advanced spectroscopy and imaging methods that are used to probe disorder and non-uniformities. A unique feature of hybrid halide perovskite compounds is the propensity for these heterogeneities to evolve in space and time under relatively mild illumination and applied electric fields, such as those found within active devices. This introduces an additional challenge for characterization and calls for application of complimentary probes that can aid in correlating the properties of local disorder with macroscopic function, with the ultimate goal of rationally tailoring synthesis towards optimal structures and compositions.

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