Planck 2018 results. XI. Polarized dust foregrounds
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Planck 2018 results. XI. Polarized dust foregrounds

  • Author(s): Collaboration, P
  • Akrami, Y
  • Ashdown, M
  • Aumont, J
  • Baccigalupi, C
  • Ballardini, M
  • Banday, AJ
  • Barreiro, RB
  • Bartolo, N
  • Basak, S
  • Benabed, K
  • Bernard, J-P
  • Bersanelli, M
  • Bielewicz, P
  • Bond, JR
  • Borrill, J
  • Bouchet, FR
  • Boulanger, F
  • Bracco, A
  • Bucher, M
  • Burigana, C
  • Calabrese, E
  • Cardoso, J-F
  • Carron, J
  • Chiang, HC
  • Combet, C
  • Crill, BP
  • Bernardis, PD
  • Zotti, GD
  • Delabrouille, J
  • Delouis, J-M
  • Valentino, ED
  • Dickinson, C
  • Diego, JM
  • Ducout, A
  • Dupac, X
  • Efstathiou, G
  • Elsner, F
  • Enßlin, TA
  • Falgarone, E
  • Fantaye, Y
  • Ferrière, K
  • Finelli, F
  • Forastieri, F
  • Frailis, M
  • Fraisse, AA
  • Franceschi, E
  • Frolov, A
  • Galeotta, S
  • Galli, S
  • Ganga, K
  • Génova-Santos, RT
  • Ghosh, T
  • González-Nuevo, J
  • Górski, KM
  • Gruppuso, A
  • Gudmundsson, JE
  • Guillet, V
  • Handley, W
  • Hansen, FK
  • Herranz, D
  • Huang, Z
  • Jaffe, AH
  • Jones, WC
  • Keihänen, E
  • Keskitalo, R
  • Kiiveri, K
  • Kim, J
  • Krachmalnicoff, N
  • Kunz, M
  • Kurki-Suonio, H
  • Lamarre, J-M
  • Lasenby, A
  • Jeune, ML
  • Levrier, F
  • Liguori, M
  • Lilje, PB
  • Lindholm, V
  • López-Caniego, M
  • Lubin, PM
  • Ma, Y-Z
  • Macías-Pérez, JF
  • Maggio, G
  • Maino, D
  • Mandolesi, N
  • Mangilli, A
  • Martin, PG
  • Martínez-González, E
  • Matarrese, S
  • McEwen, JD
  • Meinhold, PR
  • Melchiorri, A
  • Migliaccio, M
  • Miville-Deschênes, M-A
  • Molinari, D
  • Moneti, A
  • Montier, L
  • Morgante, G
  • Natoli, P
  • Pagano, L
  • Paoletti, D
  • Pettorino, V
  • Piacentini, F
  • Polenta, G
  • Puget, J-L
  • Rachen, JP
  • Reinecke, M
  • Remazeilles, M
  • Renzi, A
  • Rocha, G
  • Rosset, C
  • Roudier, G
  • Rubiño-Martín, JA
  • Ruiz-Granados, B
  • Salvati, L
  • Sandri, M
  • Savelainen, M
  • Scott, D
  • Soler, JD
  • Spencer, LD
  • Tauber, JA
  • Tavagnacco, D
  • Toffolatti, L
  • Tomasi, M
  • Trombetti, T
  • Valiviita, J
  • Vansyngel, F
  • Tent, FV
  • Vielva, P
  • Villa, F
  • Vittorio, N
  • Wehus, IK
  • Zacchei, A
  • Zonca, A
  • et al.
Abstract

The study of polarized dust emission has become entwined with the analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. We use new Planck maps to characterize Galactic dust emission as a foreground to the CMB polarization. We present Planck EE, BB, and TE power spectra of dust polarization at 353 GHz for six nested sky regions covering from 24 to 71 % of the sky. We present power-law fits to the angular power spectra, yielding evidence for statistically significant variations of the exponents over sky regions and a difference between the values for the EE and BB spectra. The TE correlation and E/B power asymmetry extend to low multipoles that were not included in earlier Planck polarization papers. We also report evidence for a positive TB dust signal. Combining data from Planck and WMAP, we determine the amplitudes and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of polarized foregrounds, including the correlation between dust and synchrotron polarized emission, for the six sky regions as a function of multipole. This quantifies the challenge of the component separation procedure required for detecting the reionization and recombination peaks of primordial CMB B modes. The SED of polarized dust emission is fit well by a single-temperature modified blackbody emission law from 353 GHz to below 70 GHz. For a dust temperature of 19.6 K, the mean spectral index for dust polarization is $\beta_{\rm d}^{P} = 1.53\pm0.02 $. By fitting multi-frequency cross-spectra, we examine the correlation of the dust polarization maps across frequency. We find no evidence for decorrelation. If the Planck limit for the largest sky region applies to the smaller sky regions observed by sub-orbital experiments, then decorrelation might not be a problem for CMB experiments aiming at a primordial B-mode detection limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r\simeq0.01$ at the recombination peak.

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