Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC San Diego

UC San Diego Previously Published Works bannerUC San Diego

Exercise Decreases and Smoking Increases Bladder Cancer Mortality.

Published Web Location
No data is associated with this publication.


The aim of this study was to investigate modifiable lifestyle factors of smoking, exercise, and obesity with bladder cancer mortality.

Patients and methods

We used mortality-linked data from the National Health Information Survey from 1998 through 2006. The primary outcome was bladder cancer-specific mortality. The primary exposures were self-reported smoking status (never- vs. former vs. current smoker), self-reported exercise (dichotomized as "did no exercise" vs. "light, moderate, or vigorous exercise in ≥ 10-minute bouts"), and body mass index. We utilized multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, with delayed entry to account for age at survey interview.


Complete data were available on 222,163 participants, of whom 96,715 (44%) were men and 146,014 (66%) were non-Hispanic whites, and among whom we identified 83 bladder cancer-specific deaths. In multivariate analyses, individuals who reported any exercise were 47% less likely (adjusted hazard ratio [HRadj], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.96; P = .038) to die of bladder cancer than "no exercise". Compared with never-smokers, current (HRadj, 4.24; 95% CI, 1.89-9.65; P = .001) and former (HRadj, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.50-5.79; P = .002) smokers were 4 and 3 times more likely, respectively, to die of bladder cancer. There were no significant associations of body mass index with bladder cancer mortality.


Exercise decreases and current smoking increases the risk of bladder cancer-specific mortality. These data suggest that exercise and smoking cessation interventions may reduce bladder cancer death.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Item not freely available? Link broken?
Report a problem accessing this item