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Using context to train time-domain echolocation click detectorsa)

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This work demonstrates the effectiveness of using humans in the loop processes for constructing large training sets for machine learning tasks. A corpus of over 57 000 toothed whale echolocation clicks was developed by using a permissive energy-based echolocation detector followed by a machine-assisted quality control process that exploits contextual cues. Subsets of these data were used to train feed forward neural networks that detected over 850 000 echolocation clicks that were validated using the same quality control process. It is shown that this network architecture performs well in a variety of contexts and is evaluated against a withheld data set that was collected nearly five years apart from the development data at a location over 600 km distant. The system was capable of finding echolocation bouts that were missed by human analysts, and the patterns of error in the classifier consist primarily of anthropogenic sources that were not included as counter-training examples. In the absence of such events, typical false positive rates are under ten events per hour even at low thresholds.

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