DES16C3cje: A low-luminosity, long-lived supernova
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DES16C3cje: A low-luminosity, long-lived supernova

  • Author(s): Gutiérrez, CP
  • Sullivan, M
  • Martinez, L
  • Bersten, MC
  • Inserra, C
  • Smith, M
  • Anderson, JP
  • Pan, Y-C
  • Pastorello, A
  • Galbany, L
  • Nugent, P
  • Angus, CR
  • Barbarino, C
  • Chen, T-W
  • Davis, TM
  • Valle, M Della
  • Foley, RJ
  • Fraser, M
  • Frohmaier, C
  • González-Gaitán, S
  • Lewis, GF
  • Gromadzki, M
  • Kankare, E
  • Kokotanekova, R
  • Kollmeier, J
  • Magee, MR
  • Maguire, K
  • Möller, A
  • Morrell, N
  • Nicholl, M
  • Pursiainen, M
  • Sollerman, J
  • Sommer, NE
  • Swann, E
  • Tucker, BE
  • Wiseman, P
  • Aguena, M
  • Allam, S
  • Avila, S
  • Bertin, E
  • Brooks, D
  • Buckley-Geer, E
  • Burke, DL
  • Rosell, A Carnero
  • Kind, M Carrasco
  • Carretero, J
  • Costanzi, M
  • Costa, LN da
  • Vicente, J De
  • Desai, S
  • Diehl, HT
  • Doel, P
  • Eifler, TF
  • Flaugher, B
  • Fosalba, P
  • Frieman, J
  • García-Bellido, J
  • Gerdes, DW
  • Gruen, D
  • Gruendl, RA
  • Gschwend, J
  • Gutierrez, G
  • Hinton, SR
  • Hollowood, DL
  • Honscheid, K
  • James, DJ
  • Kuehn, K
  • Kuropatkin, N
  • Lahav, O
  • Lima, M
  • Maia, MAG
  • March, M
  • Menanteau, F
  • Miquel, R
  • Morganson, E
  • Palmese, A
  • Paz-Chinchón, F
  • Plazas, AA
  • Sako, M
  • Sanchez, E
  • Scarpine, V
  • Schubnell, M
  • Serrano, S
  • Sevilla-Noarbe, I
  • Soares-Santos, M
  • Suchyta, E
  • Swanson, MEC
  • Tarle, G
  • Thomas, D
  • Varga, TN
  • Walker, AR
  • Wilkinson, R
  • et al.
Abstract

We present DES16C3cje, a low-luminosity, long-lived type II supernova (SN II) at redshift 0.0618, detected by the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES16C3cje is a unique SN. The spectra are characterized by extremely narrow photospheric lines corresponding to very low expansion velocities of $\lesssim1500$ km s$^{-1}$, and the light curve shows an initial peak that fades after 50 days before slowly rebrightening over a further 100 days to reach an absolute brightness of M$_r\sim -15.5$ mag. The decline rate of the late-time light curve is then slower than that expected from the powering by radioactive decay of $^{56}$Co but is comparable to that expected from accretion power. Comparing the bolometric light curve with hydrodynamical models, we find that DES16C3cje can be explained by either i) a low explosion energy (0.11 foe) and relatively large $^{56}$Ni production of 0.075 M$_{\odot}$ from a $\sim15$ M$_{\odot}$ red supergiant progenitor typical of other SNe II, or ii) a relatively compact $\sim40$ M$_{\odot}$ star, explosion energy of 1 foe, and 0.08 M$_{\odot}$ of $^{56}$Ni. Both scenarios require additional energy input to explain the late-time light curve, which is consistent with fallback accretion at a rate of $\sim0.5\times{10^{-8}}$ M$_{\odot}$ s$^{-1}$.

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