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Exercise Motivation and Self-Efficacy Vary Among Patients with Heart Failure – An Explorative Analysis Using Data from the HF-Wii Study



To examine profiles in patients with heart failure (HF) regarding their exercise motivation and self-efficacy.

Patients & methods

The baseline data of patients with HF participating in the HF-Wii study were analysed. In total, 517 patients were divided into four groups based on their exercise motivation (exercise motivation index) and self-efficacy (exercise self-efficacy scale). To describe the differences in demographic and clinical variables between the groups, chi-square cross-tabulations and ANOVAs were conducted.


The four groups were labelled as insecure avoiders (25%), laid-back strugglers (10%), conscientious self-doubters (42%) and determined achievers (22%). Patients' profiles differ according to their motivations and self-efficacy towards exercise. Most patients were conscientious self-doubters (high motivation and low self-efficacy), and these patients had more comorbidities and lower exercise capacity compared to the other groups, which could decrease their confidence in exercising. However, only half of the patients who were determined achievers (high motivation and high self-efficacy) reached the recommended amount of physical activity per week. This indicates that motivation and self-efficacy are crucial determinants, but more factors are important for becoming more physically active.


Understanding patients' motivations and self-efficacy are necessary in order to provide meaningful physical activity counselling and promotion.

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