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Discordances between pediatric and adult thresholds in the diagnosis of hypertension in adolescents with CKD



Adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are a unique population with a high prevalence of hypertension. Management of hypertension during the transition from adolescence to adulthood can be challenging given differences in normative blood pressure values in adolescents compared with adults.


In this retrospective analysis of the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Cohort Study, we compared pediatric versus adult definitions of ambulatory- and clinic-diagnosed hypertension in their ability to discriminate risk for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and kidney failure using logistic and Cox models, respectively.


Overall, among 363 adolescents included for study, the prevalence of systolic hypertension was 27%, 44%, 12%, and 9% based on pediatric ambulatory, adult ambulatory, pediatric clinic, and adult clinic definitions, respectively. All definitions of hypertension were statistically significantly associated with LVH except for the adult ambulatory definition. Presence of ambulatory hypertension was associated with 2.6 times higher odds of LVH using pediatric definitions (95% CI 1.4-5.1) compared to 1.4 times higher odds using adult definitions (95% CI 0.8-3.0). The c-statistics for discrimination of LVH was statistically significantly higher for the pediatric definition of ambulatory hypertension (c=0.61) compared to the adult ambulatory definition (c=0.54), and the Akaike Information Criterion was lower for the pediatric definition. All definitions were associated with progression to kidney failure.


Overall, there was not a substantial difference in pediatric versus adult definitions of hypertension in predicting kidney outcomes, but there was slightly better risk discrimination of the risk of LVH with the pediatric definition of ambulatory hypertension.

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