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Dipolar cations confer defect tolerance in wide-bandgap metal halide perovskites


Efficient wide-bandgap perovskite solar cells (PSCs) enable high-efficiency tandem photovoltaics when combined with crystalline silicon and other low-bandgap absorbers. However, wide-bandgap PSCs today exhibit performance far inferior to that of sub-1.6-eV bandgap PSCs due to their tendency to form a high density of deep traps. Here, we show that healing the deep traps in wide-bandgap perovskites-in effect, increasing the defect tolerance via cation engineering-enables further performance improvements in PSCs. We achieve a stabilized power conversion efficiency of 20.7% for 1.65-eV bandgap PSCs by incorporating dipolar cations, with a high open-circuit voltage of 1.22 V and a fill factor exceeding 80%. We also obtain a stabilized efficiency of 19.1% for 1.74-eV bandgap PSCs with a high open-circuit voltage of 1.25 V. From density functional theory calculations, we find that the presence and reorientation of the dipolar cation in mixed cation-halide perovskites heals the defects that introduce deep trap states.

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