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Preindustrial-control and twentieth-century carbon cycle experiments with the Earth system model CESM1(BGC)

  • Author(s): Lindsay, K
  • Bonan, GB
  • Doney, SC
  • Hoffman, FM
  • Lawrence, DM
  • Long, MC
  • Mahowald, NM
  • Moore, JK
  • Randerson, JT
  • Thornton, PE
  • et al.
Abstract

© 2014 American Meteorological Society. Version 1 of the Community Earth SystemModel, in the configurationwhere its full carbon cycle is enabled, is introduced and documented. In this configuration, the terrestrial biogeochemical model, which includes carbon-nitrogen dynamics and is present in earlier model versions, is coupled to an ocean biogeochemical model and atmospheric CO2tracers. The authors provide a description of the model, detail how preindustrial-control and twentieth-century experiments were initialized and forced, and examine the behavior of the carbon cycle in those experiments. They examine how sea- and land-to-air CO2fluxes contribute to the increase of atmospheric CO2in the twentieth century, analyze how atmospheric CO2and its surface fluxes vary on interannual time scales, including how they respond to ENSO, and describe the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2and its surface fluxes. While the model broadly reproduces observed aspects of the carbon cycle, there are several notable biases, including having too large of an increase in atmospheric CO2over the twentieth century and too small of a seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2in the Northern Hemisphere. The biases are related to a weak response of the carbon cycle to climatic variations on interannual and seasonal time scales and to twentieth-century anthropogenic forcings, including rising CO2, land-use change, and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen.

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